Smart agriculture is regarded as another new agricultural technological revolution after the plant breeding and genetics revolution, which will completely change the modern agricultural production and management methods and management models, and make agriculture enter the stage of digital, networked and intelligent development. Smart agriculture is a new scenario for digital technological innovation. The deep integration of technological innovation and the agricultural industry will not only give birth to new momentum for the development of the agricultural industry, but will also trigger technological innovations such as digital technology, data science, artificial intelligence and blockchain.
Smart agriculture is an advanced stage of agricultural informatization development and an inevitable direction for future agricultural development
Human society is experiencing an information revolution. Information technology represents the development direction of today's advanced productive forces, and has a strong driving force, permeability and diffusion. Since the 21st century, mankind has entered the era of information technology centered on the Internet. With the rapid development of a new generation of information technology, agricultural informatization is developing from the traditional digitalization and networking to the high-end direction of intelligence and intelligence. Global agricultural development has entered a new stage of smart agricultural development. Smart agriculture takes information knowledge as its core, and applies modern information technologies such as remote sensing networks, sensor networks, big data, the Internet, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, as well as intelligent equipment, and intelligent robots to agricultural production, processing, operation, management, and Services and other links in the entire industry chain will realize precise planting, internet-based sales, intelligent decision-making and social services, and form a modern agricultural development form with basic characteristics of digitization, automation, precision and intelligence.
The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that “we must insist on giving priority to the development of agriculture and rural areas, and in accordance with the general requirements of industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural customs, effective governance, and affluent life, establish and improve the urban-rural integration development system, mechanism and policy system, and accelerate the progress. Modernization of agriculture and rural areas."
Smart agriculture is an advanced stage of the development of agricultural informatization. It is a brand-new agricultural development concept, which is related to and different from the development of agricultural informatization such as computer agriculture, digital agriculture, and precision agriculture. Computer agriculture, digital agriculture, and precision agriculture apply key information technologies to agricultural production processes to improve agricultural production efficiency and benefits. Smart agriculture is to realize the intelligence of all elements, entire chains, entire industries, and entire regions. It not only runs through the agricultural production process, but also includes agricultural operations, agricultural management, agricultural services and other links. This is the largest of other agricultural informatization development models. different. The connotation and extension of smart agriculture are broader, and the theories, technologies, systems, and equipment involved are more comprehensive and complex.
At present, our country is in a critical period of transforming traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Agricultural development is facing new challenges such as the "ceiling" of agricultural product prices and the increase of production cost "floor". New problems such as agricultural resource and environmental constraints, agricultural production structure imbalance, and low agricultural development quality and efficiency have become increasingly prominent. There is an urgent need to accelerate the transformation of agricultural development methods. From extensive development to a development model of fine management and scientific decision-making, we will take the path of agricultural modernization featuring high output, product safety, resource conservation and environmental friendliness. Agricultural informatization has become an inevitable choice to lead the development of modern agriculture in my country, innovate agricultural management services and solve the problems of agricultural development.
"Thirteenth Five-Year Plan", "Central No. 1 Document" every year since 2016, "New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan", "Digital Rural Development Strategy Outline", "Digital Agriculture Rural Development Plan (2019-2025)" released in recent years "Etc., they have made top-level design and system planning for the development of digital and intelligent agriculture. The development of smart agriculture is an urgent need to implement my country’s national strategy of "synchronization of the four modernizations", accelerate the transformation of agricultural development methods, and promote agricultural modernization. It will help promote the in-depth integration of informatization and agricultural modernization, and promote the transformation and upgrading of the entire agricultural industry chain. Optimal allocation of resources and scientific management, effectively improving the efficiency of agricultural production and operation and improving the agricultural ecological environment are of great significance to the construction of a digital China, the implementation of rural revitalization strategies, and the promotion of high-quality agricultural development.
The key to smart agriculture is data, which needs to solve the three major issues of data acquisition, processing and application
Data is a basic strategic resource, and the digital economy is a new driving force for modern economic development. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposed for the first time that data should be used as a production factor to participate in the distribution of income, and data as a new production factor runs through the input stage to the output and distribution stage. The goal of smart agriculture is to realize the intelligence of the whole process of agriculture, and its essence is data-driven. Focusing on the key production factor of "data", the composition of smart agriculture includes key technologies, equipment and integrated systems in data acquisition, data processing and analysis, data application services, etc., to realize the conversion from data to knowledge to decision-making. Each link has its key theory and technical method system. These theories and technical methods are highly integrated to form a complete intelligent agricultural system.
Data acquisition is the foundation of smart agriculture. Through precise sensing and data collection technology innovation, build an integrated agricultural and rural information collection technology system of “sky and land”, carry out research on data collection, input, aggregation, application, and management technology, improve raw data acquisition and processing capabilities, and solve “data The basic question of where and how to manage". The focus is to promote the research and development of professional remote sensing satellites that meet the needs of agriculture and rural areas, break through the common key technologies of UAV agricultural applications, overcome the production of special sensors for the agricultural production environment and animal and plant physiological signs, and realize the resource environment, production and management of important agricultural and pastoral areas , Management, service and other cross-regional, all-element, multi-level data collection; research and development of agricultural and rural big data management platform, breakthrough "centralized + distributed" agricultural and rural resource assets integrated cloud architecture, data security and other key technologies.
Data processing analysis is the support. Carry out data mining and intelligent diagnosis technology innovation, build an intelligent processing and analysis technology system for agricultural big data, strengthen the advanced layout of cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, blockchain + agriculture, and big data cognitive analysis, and solve the problem of "how data is processed and Analysis" problem. The focus is to carry out technical research, integrate agricultural knowledge and models, computer vision, deep learning and other methods, develop proprietary models and algorithms for animal and plant production monitoring, identification, diagnosis, simulation and regulation, and realize the digitalization of all elements and processes of agricultural production , Intelligent diagnosis; focusing on rural digital services, strengthen the research and development of agricultural and rural data resource association mining, intelligent retrieval, intelligent matching and deep learning to meet farmers' comprehensive information needs for convenience services, e-commerce, etc.
Data application services are the key. Through precise control and technological innovation, build a data-enabled intelligent decision-making and management technology system for agriculture and rural areas, accelerate the digital transformation of industry management and service processes, and solve the problem of "how data is served". The focus is to strengthen the integration and integration of agricultural and rural proprietary software and information systems, research and develop environmental intelligent control systems, rapid inspection of agricultural product quality and cold chain logistics technology, and agricultural product credible traceability technology; strengthen independent research and development capabilities of intelligent equipment, and create a batch of agricultural intelligence Sensing, intelligent control, autonomous operation and other equipment, focusing on breakthroughs in agricultural robots, CNC spraying, intelligent detection, intelligent handling, intelligent picking, fruit and vegetable product classification and sorting technologies; develop digital agricultural standards, establish data standards, and data access Standard specifications such as interface with services, software and hardware.
Smart agriculture is a complex system application that requires the intersection and integration of multiple departments, multiple fields, and multiple disciplines. From the perspective of application fields, smart agriculture technologies, platforms and equipment have been widely used in different fields such as planting, breeding, processing, and circulation, forming smart New industrial development formats such as farmland, smart pastures, smart fisheries, smart orchards, smart plant factories, smart workshops for processing agricultural products, and green smart supply chains for agricultural products. Different smart agriculture development models and paths are formed for different application subjects. For example, the smart agriculture applications of small farmers mainly focus on information skills training, technology hosting and equipment sharing services, e-commerce platforms, and small smart terminal applications. New business entities such as family farms, agricultural enterprises, and cooperatives focus on applications such as improving production efficiency, enhancing product added value, and intelligent transformation of the entire industry chain. At the same time, different smart agricultural application models are formed around the types and characteristics of industries in different regions. For example, the northeastern region of my country is dominated by large-scale precision planting, the southeast coast is dominated by the development of smart fishery and smart logistics, and the southwest mountainous area is dominated by the development of smart and characteristic agriculture.
Smart agriculture is a complex application of software and hardware systems. Through the comprehensive application of cutting-edge digital technology and equipment, it can automatically, accurately and efficiently collect, extract and process agricultural big data, so that all kinds of data "islands" are interconnected, and with the help of image and video recognition, Artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning and data mining can quickly acquire a variety of information and knowledge to achieve high-quality, efficient, and ecologically friendly development of agriculture.
As a technology-intensive agricultural innovation system, smart agriculture requires the integrated development of technology, platform and ecology. Specifically, it requires not only the support of new infrastructure such as 5G, artificial intelligence, and data centers, but also basic research and theoretical breakthroughs in information technology, data science, agricultural science, and equipment science. The important driving force for the future development of smart agriculture comes from the highly organic integration of agricultural information technology, agronomy and agricultural machinery, which relies on the intersection of digital technology and agricultural science, resource and environmental science, genomics, agricultural economics and social science. Only by scientifically understanding the complex relationships and ecological links between animal and plant production, water and soil resources, and the environment, can massive agricultural data be converted into knowledge and decision-making; only by combining with molecular information such as genomics and microbiota of individual animals and plants, Only powerful machine learning, deep learning, and data mining technologies can play an important role to achieve the goal of data empowering agriculture. In addition, to promote smart agricultural technology innovation, we must attach importance to cross-disciplinary and cross-industry knowledge exchange and technology integration, as well as the cultivation of compound agricultural talents.